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Classification

Area Classification

Area classification is the division of a facility into three-dimensional hazardous areas and non-hazardous areas and the subdivision of the hazardous area into ‘Zones’.

Hazardous areas may be sud-divided into three Zones as shown below.

Flammable Gases and Vapour's
Zone 0 An area in which an explosive atmosphere is constantly present, or present for long periods.
(Rough Guide: More than 1,000 hours / year)
Zone 1 An area in which an explosive atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation.
(Rough Guide: 10 hours or more / year but less than 1,000 hours / year)
Zone 2 An area in which an explosive atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation and if it occurs, it will exist only for a short time.
(Rough Guide: Less than 10 hours / year)
Combustible Dusts
Zone 20 An area in which combustible dust, as a cloud, is present continuously or frequently, during normal operation, in sufficient quantity to be capable of producing an explosive concentration of combustible dust in a mixture with air.
Zone 21 An area, in which combustible dust, as a cloud, is occasionally present during normal operation, in a sufficient quantity to be capable of producing an explosive concentration of combustible dust in a mixture with air.
Zone 22 An area, in which combustible dust, as a cloud, may occur infrequently and persist for only a short period, or in which accumulations of layers of combustible dust may give rise to an explosive concentration of combustible dust in a mixture with air.

For further information on the classification of hazardous areas see:

IEC 60079-10 - Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres, Classification of Hazardous Areas.

IEC 61241-3 (Proposed change to IEC 61241-10) - Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust Part 3: Classification of areas where combustible dusts are, or may be present.

PR EN 50281-3 - Classification of areas where dusts are, or may be, present.

Institute of Petroleum - Model Code of Safe Practice in the Petroleum Industry, Part 15: Area Classification Code for Petroleum Installations, IP 15.

Classification Society

A Classification Society may also enforce requirements for the design and installation of facilities. These requirements, which are in addition to statutory requirements, may influence the design and installation of the electrical systems. Classification Societies include ABS, DNV and Lloyds Register.

CENELEC And IEC

Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Hazardous (Classified) Areas

There are numerous regulation codes, guidelines and standards for the design, selection and installation of electrical installation in potentially explosive atmospheres. These requirements are in addition to the requirements for installations in non-hazardous areas.

There are several types of protection, i.e. construction techniques, available for electrical apparatus in hazardous areas. The type of protection permitted will depend upon the applicable installation codes and rules to be adopted.

The selection of electrical apparatus should be in accordance with the following:

  • Classification of the hazardous area.
  • Temperature class or ignition temperature of the gas, liquid, vapour's, mist, dust or fibre.
  • Where applicable, the gas, vapour or dust classification in relation to the group or subgroup of the electrical apparatus.
  • External influences and ambient temperature.

Apparatus Selection According To Zones

Apparatus For Use In Zone 0

  • Intrinsic safety ‘ia’

Apparatus For Use In Zone 1

  • Electrical apparatus permitted for use in Zone 0.
  • Flameproof enclosure ‘d’.
  • Pressurized apparatus ‘p’.
  • Powder filling ‘q’.
  • Oil immersion ‘o’.
  • Increased safety ‘e’.
  • Intrinsic safety ‘ib’.
  • Encapsulation ‘m’.

Apparatus For Use In Zone 2

  • Electrical apparatus permitted for use in Zone 0 or Zone 1.
  • Electrical apparatus designed specifically for Zone 2 (for example type of protection ‘n’).
  • Electrical apparatus complying with the requirements of a recognized standard for industrial electrical apparatus, which does not, in normal operation produce arcs or sparks. This equipment must be in an enclosure with a degree of protection and mechanical strength suitable for the environment and be assessed by a person who is familiar with the requirements of any relevant standards and codes of practice.

Apparatus For Use In Zones 20, 21 and 22

  • Refer to EN 50281-1-2 Electrical apparatus protected by enclosures - Selection, installation and maintenance.

CENELEC And IEC

Apparatus Selection According To The Ignition Temperature Of Gas Or Vapour

The equipment must be selected so that its maximum surface temperature will not reach the ignition temperature of any gas or vapour that may be present.

Temperature Class of Electrical Apparatus Maximum Surface Temperature of Electrical Apparatus Ignition Temperature of Gas or Vapour
T1 450°C >450°C
T2 300°C >300°C
T3 200°C >200°C
T4 135°C >135°C
T5 100°C >100°C
T6 85°C >85°C

If the marking of the electrical apparatus does not include an ambient temperature range, the apparatus is only for use within an ambient temperature range from -20°C to + 40°C.

For further information regarding data for flammable gases and vapour's, see PD IEC 60079-20.

Apparatus Selection According To Apparatus Grouping

The grouping of gases and vapour's are classified into Group I and Group II categories. Group I is relevant to atmospheres containing firedamp (a mixture of gases, composed mostly of methane, found underground in mines).

Group II is intended for use in all other places with potentially explosive atmospheres. Group II electrical apparatus with types of protection ‘d’ and ‘i’ are further subdivided into apparatus group IIA, IIB or IIC. Electrical apparatus with type of protection ‘n’ may also be subdivided if it contains certain devices or components.

Gas/Vapour Subdivision Apparatus Subgroup Permitted
IIA (typical gas propane) IIA, IIB or IIC
IIB (typical gas ethylene) IIB or IIC
IIC (typical gases acetylene and hydrogen) IIC

Apparatus Construction Standards

CENELEC IEC
EN 50014 - General Requirements IEC 60079-0 - General Requirements
EN 50015 - Oil Immersion ‘o’ IEC 60079-6 - Oil Immersion ‘o’
EN 50016 - Pressurization ‘p’ IEC 60079-2 - Pressurization ‘p’
EN 50017 - Powder Filling ‘q’ IEC 60079-5 - Powder Filling ‘q’
EN 50018 - Flameproof Enclosure ‘d’ IEC 60079-1 - Flameproof Enclosure ‘d’
EN 50019 - Increased Safety ‘e’ IEC 60079-7 - Increased Safety ‘e’
EN 50020 - Intrinsic Safety ‘i’ IEC 60079-11 - Intrinsic Safety ‘i’
EN 50021 - Electrical Apparatus type ‘n’ IEC 60079-15 - Electrical Apparatus type ‘n’
EN 50028 - Encapsulation ‘m’ IEC 60079-18 - Encapsulation ‘m’

CENELEC And IEC

Installation Standards and Codes

There are numerous different regulations, codes, guidelines and standards for the design, installation and maintenance of electrical and non-electrical systems for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. The type of operational facility, geographic location, operator practice, local and national legislation authority, having jurisdiction etc. will determine many of the design and installation rules permitted.

For further information on the design, selection and installation of equipment for use in hazardous areas see:

IEC 60079-14 - Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines)

IEC 61892-7 - Mobile and fixed offshore units - Electrical installation, Part 7: Hazardous areas

IEC 612141-1-2 (Proposed change to IEC 61241-14) - Electrical apparatus in the presence of combustible dust. Part 1-2: Electrical apparatus protected by enclosures and surface temperature.

EN 60079-14 - Electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines).

EN 50281-1-2 - Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust - Part 1 - 2. Electrical apparatus protected by enclosures - selection, installation and maintenance.

Inspection Standards and Codes

For information regarding the installation and maintenance of equipment for use in hazardous areas see:

IEC 60079-17 - Inspection and maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than mines).

IEC 61241-17 - Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust atmosphere - Part 17: Inspection and maintenance.

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COMMISSIONING
 Commissioning contract review and  development
 Commissioning philosophies development
 Project schedule development
 Commissioning procedure development
 Qa inspections and procedure development
 Hand over package management
 Project tracking software
 Specialized commissioning engineers
 Documentation control
 Integration and client acceptance
 Punch list management
 Equipment certification
Hazardous area equipment
Focus on proper management of these areas is crucial in order to
significantly mitigate the risk of experiencing an explosion or fire.
Part of an effective management plan should include a hazardous area
equipment register (HAER) which details where every piece of
electrical equipment in these areas is located, along with its
specifications and last inspection date. To maintain suitability and
certification, all electrical equipment installed in hazardous areas
must be subject to regular inspections and maintained. Given the
amount of equipment that may be installed in your hazardous areas,
hundreds, perhaps thousands, an accurate (HAER) may be difficult to
create and maintain. Many facilities have no record of such equipment,
and completing such an inventory can be a time consuming ,
manpower-intensive process, especially considering that every piece of
electrical equipment installed in hazardous locations should not only
be inventoried, logged, and inspected, but also assigned and tagged
with a unique number.
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